UreMusic Education: Online Music Composition Lessons and Courses - UreMusic: Compose Music Online

Learn to Compose Music Today


Composing music isn't a mystical artform that is only accessible to the most talented musical geniuses. When you study music composition, you learn the skills and techniques to create effective musical works. Anybody with a desire to learn can develop the technique, skill, and knowledge to compose their own original works.

Our online music composition lessons and music composition courses are designed to help you become a better composer, and develop your ability to compose effective musical works.

Order products directly from this page and get on the path to becoming a more effective composer. All of our products are created by Kevin A. Ure. He holds a Master's Degree in Music Composition from The University of Arizona, and he is currently teaching music theory at The University of Nevafa, Las Vegas. He has studied with some of the world's most renowned composers, including Daniel Asia, Virko Baley, Paul Chihara, Steven Stucky, Curtis-Curtis Smith, Dr. Richard Adams, and others.




Download Elements of Music Composition



The Elements of Music Composition eBook gives composers the necessary information to develop a solid foundation in the craft of music composition. It provides a discussion of how the elements of music work together to create a cohesive and comprehensible work. It also deals with the matter of writing an organic composition, in which all elements of a work are integral to the function of the entire composition.




Download Technique Builder


The Technique Builder gives composers hands-on, practical exercises designed to develop technical ability. Concepts are addressed that help composers deal with the blank page, develop a better sense for composing music, and discover techniques that can be integrated into a solid composition routine. This offers composers a daily routine, which can help improve technique and skill in the same way a musician develops by practicing scales and arpeggios.





Download Level 1


Our Level 1 course is designed for composers who need a walk-through in how to create an effective composition while developing their skill. The course takes students through a variety of techniques while simultaneously composing a new work. This gives students a powerful approach to learning how to compose music, and it enables them to create music from the very beginning. Many books on composition fail by providing obscure and irrelevant composition exercises, this course gives the student hands-on instruction that leads to the development of a completed composition.




Download Level 2


The Level 2 course is designed for advanced composers who want insider tips and techniques to boost their abilities. This represents the last course in the Craft of Music Composition series before students are catapulted from working on their craft to working on their art. The Craft of Music Composition is intended to help students develop and refine their abilities as a composer. Students who complete this course will be ready to move on and create art at a high level.





*Art of Music Composition is not yet available. It's expected to be released in Winter 2017. The course will aim to be the ultimate composition course with powerful insights into the art of composing.

Monday, August 1, 2016

Kevin A. Ure

Using Music Theory to Compose Music

“Tradition is not the worship of ashes, but the preservation of fire.” ~ Gustav Mahler

The Elements of Music Composition

It's worth noting that of all the subjects a composer must learn, we only call the study of connecting chords, voice leading, and analyzing works a theory. Orchestration, counterpoint, form, and instrumentation have many elements with concrete and tangible aspects, but we do not designate these subjects as theories. Why should composers give music theory such a high degree of importance? It's a serious question worthy of any note wielder's thought and time. It's also one of the issues addressed in this text.

The Importance of Music Theory


There is no doubt that composers need to understand music theory, and a sound background offers a greater understanding of existing music that theorists have already analyzed.

Music theory is a subject a composer must learn, but no theory harvested from another artist's work has ever created an original composition. By its very nature, music theory is the ability to apply time-tested progressions, voice leading principles, and known structures to a musical work. Music theory only teaches you to compose with the tools that another composer spent a lifetime developing.

For the student of music composition, music theory is an invaluable tool. It helps the composer avoid common mistakes, and it can serve as the basis for developing a sound composing technique. Theory is also helpful for composers who need to compose music quickly for film, television, games, and other projects. A strong knowledge of music theory can help composers write quickly and with the confidence that the final work will affect a pleasurable response from the audience.

Should You Purchase This Book?


If you hope to learn the techniques and theories necessary to compose structurally sound musical works with the only originality coming in the form of your inspired melodies, then this book is not for you.

If you want to understand the concepts that master composers use to break the "rules" and create original works, then you need to keep reading. In some cases, composers are only vaguely aware of these concepts on an intuitive level. This text is an essential book that spells out these concepts in a practical and tangible way; making this a resource that should be in any composer's collection.

Discover the Art of Music Composition


Composers who want a deeper understanding of the practical application and explanation of music theory, counterpoint, orchestration, and form will enjoy the philosophical tone of this manuscript. For any composer or musician who wants to understand the art of music composition and not simply learn the fundamentals of chord construction, form, orchestration, and other composition-related skills, this work fills a much-needed niche.

The text gives explanations of the essential elements in a music composition, but only to provide an explanation of how these elements function in music. Since you can learn music theory, orchestration, and form from any number of theory or composition books on the market, these topics are only discussed as they relate to the subject at hand -- the creation of compelling musical works.

The Concepts This Book Will Not Teach You


Before getting into a discussion of what this text does accomplish, it's important for you to understand what this book will not teach you:

There are no arbitrary exercises designed to help you improve your technique and make you a better composer. You also won't study music theory, how to construct chords from established chord progression, or learn what different instrument combinations work best together. This book also won't discuss the various musical modes, the means of composing electronic music, and it definitely won't tell you how to produce a work "instantly."

For all of those important topics, there are hundreds of textbooks and free resources available to help you meet those aims. This book aims higher to provide composers with a study in the aesthetics of music composition, with the ultimate goal of learning to compose music that gives homage to the past while forging a path forward into the future.

What You Will Learn


This book gives you insight into how to compose a musical work that develops in an organic, coherent, and comprehensible way. You'll learn guiding principles that make music written in any style more effective. While geared toward the serious composer, any songwriter or composer can benefit from the concepts in this text.

The Development of Musical Instruction


Throughout the history of music, composers have learned to compose music in various ways. One of the oldest methods of training was counterpoint. Composers learned principles of voice leading that when employed correctly created multiple balanced melodic lines resulting in harmony when performed. Counterpoint focused on both the horizontal and vertical aspects of music.

Next came the invention of music theory, which aimed to place a greater emphasis on the analysis of the vertical aspects of music. Through music theory, a greater understanding of chord progressions and chord creation came to fruition. What started as a supplement for composers became an art form that helped writers create colorful chords.

Today, based on the work of several brilliant composers and their life work, Kevin Ure has consolidated what has been a 20-year search for the principles of music composition. The Elements of Music Composition is an introduction to an aesthetic of music composition that will help composers learn the principles necessary to create original works that follow an organic process of music composition.

This text is the result of that search, and Kevin Ure has been using these concepts and refining the method for years while teaching his private students in his composition studio.
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Monday, July 25, 2016

Kevin A. Ure

Set Lyrics to Music Perfectly: Valuable Tips You Need to Know

In a similar vein to composing music, many people believe that lyric writing is too difficult and that it requires a supernatural skill to do so effectively. While the ability to write song lyrics does vary between people, talent is not the only factor that determines whether your song lyrics are going to work well with the composition.

As with music composition, writing song lyrics is as much a craft as it is a talent. Lyric writing is a personal activity that requires the ability to express your thoughts with words and set them to music.

Write What You Know

Prospective lyric writers are told to write what they know. This mantra is hammered into your head as a writer, but lyric writers fail to get much more direction beyond that. Writing lyrics requires you to express a thought, idea, or theme in a manner that makes them suitable for singing.

It's more than simply putting words on a page, since if the lyrics are awkward or stilted, the music is going to be difficult to sing. Since writing lyrics is such a personal thing, it's not possible to write a single article that tells every songwriter in the world how to express their feelings. However, like music composition, there are certain basics that can be learned to make the process of writing lyrics go more smoothly.

The Purpose of Lyrics

Writing lyrics serves two main purposes -- form and practicality. The form of a piece is largely dictated by the words that are going to be used in the piece. I know very few songwriters that write music first and then go to look for appropriate lyrics to fit the melody. Because of this, the words end up dictating the form of the piece to a large degree.

The other side of that involves the practicality of singing. Singers don't need lyrics to sing, and they can simply vocalize; but, since they are using their voices to produce sound, it makes sense that adding words to a piece of music can provide an extra element to the piece.

Some people that write lyrics are writing them purely for the message. The creativity of the words and rhyming scheme are less important than the actual message of the lyrics. Others put a greater emphasis on the actual music; they want lyrics that accurately represent the tone and mood of the music.

Deciding what you want to achieve with your lyrics before committing words to paper is the first step to creating effective lyrics.

Types of Music

Classical music is going to require a different approach to lyric writing than popular music. In a classical piece, you want lyrics that flow smoothly with the music and often, the lyrics don't need to have a "hook" or "ear candy" to bring the listener to the piece.

Classical music relies more on the content of the music than the lyrics to express a message. Take the example of opera, each plot line can usually be summarized in a single sentence. But, the message, moods, and character development in an opera have far more time to develop than your typical pop album.

The nature of opera is to deal with dramatic human interactions and exchanges in a musical form. On the other hand, popular music tends to deal with one specific idea, and the main purpose is to provide entertainment. Because of this, the "hook" can help to make a song more memorable and bring the audience into the music.

Determine the type of music you are writing before you start writing your lyrics so that you can get a feel for the type of content, structure, and purpose of the lyrics. If you're writing popular music, the lyrics need to be catchy and possibly even a bit bizarre.

With popular music, the words are much more important than the message, although, that doesn't mean that popular music can't also have a deeper message. With classical music, the words are less important than the mood, emotion, message, and music expressed in the musical composition.

Popular Music

If your aim is to write popular music, then coming up with the hook should be one of the first things you aim to create. The hook is going to help you or your composer refine the melody and create the chorus. It can also help you fill out the lyrics for the rest of the song. If you don't yet have an idea for the song, you can create any hook without having to worry about how it ties into the actual composition.

Once you create the hook, you can refine the music so that it fits with a melody and title for the piece. Chances are, if you're writing popular music, you're going to have to create the lyrics entirely by yourself or with the help of a lyricist.

With classical music, it's a little bit different and there are certain shortcuts available for composers that don't want to write their own lyrics. If you're having trouble coming up with a hook, think about phrases that are popular by looking at trending topics on Facebook and Twitter.

If you're in a rut coming up with lyrics, the most important thing is movement. Keep searching and eventually, an effective hook will come to you. Once you create a hook, check the hook to see if it accurately sums up a single point. Unless you want to achieve a particular goal, with popular music you should focus each song on one particular point.

Classical Music

With classical music, you generally have a different objective than you would have when writing lyrics for popular music. In a classical piece, it's more about the music and the message. Because of this, many composers choose lyrics that are already in the public domain.

Generally, anything written more than 70 years ago is free game for composers that want to write music. Emily Dickinson is a commonly used writer for composers that don't have the ability or desire to come up with their own lyrics. With a classical music song, since it's more about the music and the message, it's important to select poetry and writings with words that are singable.

It's unlikely that a classical composer is going to create a hook for their composition. The "hooks" in a classical music composition are all about the motives and melody. It's a good idea to select a poem early on and then spend time reflecting on that poem and trying to figure out how you want the music to reflect the message in the poem.

Generating Ideas

If you're having trouble coming up with ideas, it's time to take a trip back to your high school English class. Remember brainstorming? It's something that is taught to all writers because it's an effective way to get your mind going.
Start with a sheet of paper and write one or two words that come to mind. Then, removing any self-talk, freely start writing down any words that come to mind. Don't hesitate, if a word pops into your mind, write it down.
Complete this process for at least five minutes and then review the words to see if any ideas for a hook or song pop out at you. Start to devise a storyline based on the ideas created during your brainstorming session.

Lyric Considerations

Tense

Once you've started creating your lyrics, you need to pay attention to some basic grammar issues that often crop up. You can certainly be creative in your lyrics, and not everything has to be grammatically correct; however, in general, you should use the same tense throughout the entire piece.

Jumping from past to present tense generally only works if you are trying to accomplish a very specific goal with a narrative that starts in the past tense and then comes into the present or future tense. This sort of technique works well when you're dealing with a composition that goes through a storyline or development of the main character in the song.

Voice

The voice of the song should also remain consistent. If the song starts in the first person voice, with the narrative describing a person's depiction of something that happened to them as if they were telling the story, then the piece should generally stay in the first person voice. Avoid switching between narrative voices. Changing the voice not only sounds strange, it can cause problems when trying to set the lyrics to music.

Choosing a Mode

The mode in lyric writing refers to the manner in which the narrator expresses the emotions of the piece. Mode refers to the different types of verses in a poem and as such, it has a significant bearing on the creation of lyrics in a music composition. Basically, the mode helps the writer determine the focus of each verse and determine what each verse is designed to do -- it's purpose. The three most commonly used modes are the lyric, narrative, and dramatic modes.

Lyric Mode

This is probably the most common mode used by lyric writers. The lyric mode always uses a first person narrative and is told from the viewpoint of the narrative. In a first person narrative the word "I" is crucial to expressing the viewpoint. First person narrative doesn't mean that the lyrics have to be told from your viewpoint. It can be the viewpoint of an imaginary person discussing their mood, feelings, or thought processes. Most songs in the lyric mode are written in the present tense as well.

Narrative Mode

In a narrative mode, the point of the lyrics is to tell a story. Unlike the lyric mode, it's not dealing with a person's emotions, feelings, or thought processes. This can be a bit confusing because songs written in both lyric and dramatic mode can contain elements of the narrative mode. But, the main point of the song is what determines the type of mode used.

The sole purpose of the narrative mode is to tell an account or story of something that happened, or possibly will happen. Because of this, narrative songs are often based in the past tense. However, there are many examples of songs using the narrative mode that exist in both the present and future tense as well.
First person and third person points of view are both commonly used. It depends on whether you want the narrator to depict something that occurred, or if you want someone outside the events to describe something as it happened.

Dramatic Mode

The dramatic mode is in the form of a speech given to someone or something. The dramatic mode attempts to express a feeling or emotion to another person. Unlike the lyric mode, the dramatic mode is talking about feelings or emotions, while directing those feelings as a message toward a specific person.

If the song aims mainly to give voice to a narrator's feelings, then the song is still in lyric mode. In contrast, if the song aims to send a message to a particular person or thing, then it is in dramatic mode. Gloria Gaynor's song "I Will Survive" is an example of dramatic mode.

Setting the Lyrics to Music

Once you have the basic mode selected and a framework for your lyrics, it's time to refine everything and set the lyrics to music. When writing the music, it's important to sing the lyrics. Otherwise, the emphasis might get placed on the wrong syllable.

For instance, if you have the word "Assigned," then you have to be very careful to write that word in such a way that the vocalist doesn't sound like she is cursing. Extending the first part of that word on a high point in the song could create the wrong impression and obscure the clarity of the word.

Most vocalists will adjust the words as necessary to avoid this type of confusion, but in classical music especially, it is expected that the composer has already worked through these issues. Pay careful attention to the rhythm and the meter of the song when you're setting your lyrics to music.
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Saturday, May 30, 2015

Kevin A. Ure

Ambient Noise and Extended Music Composition Techniques

Musical works often use ambient composition techniques. These techniques can come In the form of acoustic or electronic sounds. Both types of music have the potential to engage the listener And create an atmospheric backdrop for your musical works. Adding atmospheric effects can add suspense, increase the overall density of a work, and improve the texture of a composition through added timbres not possible within traditional music. Accomplished composers know about the various available techniques and how to use the in a composition to good effect.

Percussion

In traditional music, percussion instruments can create dramatic ambient noise through the use of both pitched and non-pitched instruments. Using traditional instruments in non-traditional ways can provide composers with new sounds and is a common practice for orchestral composers. Crotales that normally act as bells can be transformed into an ethereal, lingering effect when bowed with a string bow instead of striking with a mallet. The sound of rain and thunder can be created using sheets of metal and a bass drum mallet along with a rain stick that the percussionist can use to create the sound of falling rain. The speed of the rain can be increased or decreased by speeding the rate at which the percussionist rotates the instrument. The best way to learn about percussion instruments is by attending concerts and talking with percussionists at universities, community colleges and message boards online.

Strings

String instruments parallel the level of expression found in the human voice. As the second most expressive instrument, strings are an orchestral composers most important section for creating harmonious backdrops and soaring melodies. Strings instruments don't require breaks to breathe in between musical lines and phrases. Because of this, a composer can create continuous notes and hold a single note indefinitely. String players are often called upon to create drones and to play high tessituras that would be too difficult or impossible for other instrumentalists. The pizzicato technique can be played in various ways to create differing types of plucking sounds. The "Snap Pizzicato," also known as a "Bartok Pizzicato," to create loud, harsh, snapping sounds that pop out of the musical texture. In a Bartok Pizzicato, the string actually snaps back and hits the fingerboard forcefully, creating an explosion of sound. Cole Legno provides a different sort of sound, one that requires the player to use the back of the wooden bow to play the strings. Using this technique, a crackling, sterile sound is produced that creates a hollow sound akin to splintering wood.

Brass 

The brass family consists of trumpets, trombones, French horns, tubas, and euphoniums. Often, cornets are used in conjunction with trumpets to create a more mellow sound than that commonly used Bb trumpet. These instruments provide the power to the orchestra and can use several techniques to change the natural sound of the instrument. Mutes can be installed to change the timbre and tone of the instrument. A mute doesn't necessarily silence the instrument, although the right type of music can reduce the amount of sound produced. Instead, a mute is used to create a different texture. Harmon mutes, for example, can make the instrument sound metallic. Mutes for tuba and euphonium are also available, and when used in conjunction with a double-reed woodwind instrument can create a sound very similar to a string ensemble with a slightly darker texture. More advanced players can play intervals by singing one pitch while playing another at the same time.

Woodwinds

Woodwind instruments can be taken apart and played using only the mouthpiece. This creates a shrieking sound that can be effective in certain orchestral and solo passages. Another option for woodwind instruments involves blowing air through the instrument without playing any pitches to play key clicks. Woodwinds can also create glissandos and play multiple pitches by using multi-phonics, or overblowing the instrument to create additional shrieking effects. A composer that wants to learn how to write for a woodwind instrument should talk with other instrumentalists and ask them to perform the various techniques. Videos can also be found online to help composers get a feel for how an instrument sounds while employing various techniques.

Electronic

Composers of modern music have started including electronic instruments in their live orchestral works. By doing so, composers can create additional effects that are not otherwise possible in a composition. While a completely electronic piece can lack emotion and nuance provided by a live orchestra, the combination of both electronic and acoustic elements can create a cohesive piece that utilizes the strengths of both mediums. The manipulation of ordinary sounds can result in especially dramatic, creative, and innovative sounds that enhance a composition's effectiveness. The creation of electronic music requires the composer to work twice as hard to create a composition since the composer must first compose the music and then perform it. Simply putting the pitches and sounds into a sequencer will create a dry, uninspired and lacking composition. Composers that wish to use electronic music must have highly developed musical skills to create a truly expressive piece.
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Kevin A. Ure

Music Composition: Characteristics of Contemporary Choral MusicTechniques

Composers have been coming up with new and inventive ways to expand the realm of choral music for centuries. New instruments and techniques are constantly being developed, but many of these techniques fail to secure a lasting foothold and gain traction. Many techniques of the twentieth and twenty-first century incorporate additional dissonances to compose chord resolutions, chord successions, and chord progressions that are atypical of classical music before 1910. Composers continue to push the field of music composition forward with new sounds and music to keep audiences entertained, provide new music, and push the boundaries of what is possible in a composition.

Chord Construction

Traditional chords consist of varying arrangements of major, minor, augments and diminished thirds stacked on top of each other to create triads and seventh chords. Starting in the twentieth century, this began to change for composers. Composers that were trying to create new sounds and open up the ears of the listening public radically challenged the concept of a chord. Love him or hate him, composers like Arnold Schoenberg have conditioned our ears to make it acceptable to hear more dissonances and accept music that in the Classical period would be defined as noise. Composers today have a wealth of options at their disposal for creating new chords. Quartal harmony stacks chords based on intervals of fourths and fifths, instead of the thirds used in traditional music. Tone clusters that contain several tones spaced closely together and typically at dissonant intervals aim to create a specific mood with each new chord. Composers also regularly incorporate chords that have five or more pitches to create new and interesting chords.

Serialism and Twelve-Tone Technique

Arnold Schoenberg and his Second Viennese School are largely responsible for the creation of serialism. Far from setting out to destroy music in all it's forms, Arnold Schoenberg's first compositions were extremely tonal and almost indistinguishable from the works of other Romantic period composers. In a search for a way to secure the German music tradition for the "next 1000 years," Schoenberg searched for a way to present music in a new way. This reorganization resulted in what we now call serialism. In it's more severe and restricted form, the technique is called twelve-tone composition, where every note in a chromatic scale must be used once before it is repeated. Other less strict forms involve creating cells and sets of notes that are repeated at various transpositions and re-ordered to continually change the musical elements in a composition. The goal of serialism was to break off the pull of tonal music and open up the ear to hearing the frowned upon and less widely received dissonances of earlier classical music. Serialism challenged the concept of what was musically acceptable and opened our ears to the world of dissonance. Composers occasionally use serialism in their choral compositions to create elaborate new sounds.

Polytonality and Bitonality

Choral compositions that use polytonality rely upon the use of several different keys played simultaneously. A composer might choose to have a melody in the key of C major and harmony in the key of Ab minor. This juxtaposition of more than one key center makes it possible to create music that may follow some basic tenets of tonality, while still advancing the craft and creating modern, dissonant sounds. While this type of music can be difficult to sing well, college level and professional choirs should have no problem performing polytonal works. Bitonality is essentially the same thing as polytonality. However, with bitonality only two key centers are used in the composition. Igor Stravinsky and other twentieth century composers, like Charles Ives, were well known for incorporating these techniques in their musical compositions.

Advanced Counterpoint

Traditional counterpoint focuses on creating several independent musical lines that when played together also create harmony. This concept was taken to the extreme beginning in the twentieth century and resulted in many new methods of employing contrapuntal techniques. Many modern composers will invert a melody line and use it as the second line in a counterpoint, change the rules of counterpoint so that instead of using consonances, the rules are turned on their head resulting in dissonant counterpoint. Charles Seeger originally conceived of dissonant counterpoint as a classroom exercise to challenge and develop his students. However, the concept has been applied to modern compositions to create highly dissonant and innovative musical works. Some of the main differences between traditional counterpoint and dissonant counterpoint was the manner in which skips and leaps were resolved. In traditional counterpoint, skips and leaps must always be resolved in the opposite direction of the skip or leap. In dissonant counterpoint, if there is a consonant, the consonant may only be resolved by skip thereby making the composition even more dissonant.
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Kevin A. Ure

Creating a Twelve-Tone Matrix and Row

Twelve-tone music attempts to circumvent the concept of a tonal center by using a formula to avoid emphasizing any single tone. In tonal music, the tonic of the scale usually gets emphasized creating the feeling of a tonal center. Tonal music also uses certain chords based on the fundamentals of the overtone series to help emphasize the tonic -- usually the dominant and subdominant. Twelve-tone music doesn't use specific chords and avoids any relationships used in tonal music to create harmony and melody.

Composers that want to create a 12-tone matrix can do so using graph paper. Once a composer creates a row, a version of the row is selected to create each melody of the composition. Some composers take it a step further and stack the notes to create chords as well. When selecting pitches, composers avoid selecting intervals that might imply a tonic, such as a major third followed by a minor third.
There are various names for each row in the matrix:
  • From left to right, the letter P is used to represent the Prime of the row.Use the following row as a guide to create your own twelve tone row.
  • From right to left, the letter R represents the Retrograde of the row.
  • From top to bottom, the letter I represents the Inversion of the row.
  • From bottom to top, the letter RI represents the Retrograde-Inversion of the row.
Creating a row is simple, although many composers use row calculators to create the 12-tone matrix. You need to set up your graph paper with a 14 by 14 grid. Leave the squares in the top and bottom corners blank. The initial row form is the Prime form of the row. It can be created by the composer, provided no two notes are repeated. Instead of letters, many composers use numbers from 0 to 11. Each number represents a pitch with 0 being the note name C in most cases. Pick any 12 pitches and order them from left to right, but leave the first row and first column of your grid blank. The first row and column are used to write in the abbreviated names of the row for your reference. Do not repeat pitches; however, you may use numbers if you like. Write the first pitch or number diagonally from the top left left corner to the bottom right corner. In the example image, we has the number 4, so we would write in 4 diagonally from the top left to bottom right of the grid, leaving the top and bottom squares blank, of course.

The next step involves filling in the sides of the row to indicate the versions of the row. Along the top of the row, write in the numbers that indicate the pitches in your Prime row on the top and bottom of the matrix. Use I for the top columns and RI for the bottom. For instance, if you have an Eb or 4 as the first note in your row, label the top column I4 and the column at the bottom RI4. If the next pitch is D, then label the second column I3. Continue to complete each column on the top of your row. Since the first row starts with the number 4, place P4 at the left-hand side of the twelve-tone matrix and R4 at the right-hand side of the twelve-tone matrix.

To figure out the remaining forms of the row, you need to determine the interval between the filled in diagonal row and its corresponding prime (1st) row. For instance, in row 2 of the example, the diagonal pitch is 4 since the number is Eb. The distance between the second row and the Prime row is 1, since the Prime row has a D or the number 3. Complete the rest of Row 2 by adding 1 to each pitch in the Prime row. In this case, you have the following numbers from left to right in the second row: 5, 4, 6, 2, 9, 11, 8, 7, 0, 1, 10, 3. Since the row starts with the number 5, filling in P5 for the left-hand side of the matrix and R5 for the right-hand side of the matrix.

Now that you have the first and second row filled in, continue to fill in the remaining rows using the same process. What is the distance between the third column, third row and the first column, third row? Find the number you entered into the third row, third column and compare it to the first row, third column. Using our example, we used the pitch Eb or the number 4 for the third row, third column. If you look at the first row, third column, you see the number 5. Since 4 is less than 5, you have to subtract one from the Prime number in each column of the first row. For the third row, the first column is 3, since 4 - 1 = 3. The entire row is: 3, 2, 4, 0, 7, 9, 6, 5, 10, 11, 8, 1. Label the left column with P3 and the right column with R3.

Once you have filled in the third row, continue filling out each row until you have filled in every available column for each version of the row. Now, when you composer you can select any version of the row you want to create your melodies. Some people also use strict number systems that determine the pitches based on various criteria. Others try and use repetitive motives to make up for the lack of tonal melodies. The concept behind twelve-tone music involved the intervallic relationships between the pitches. The orderly use various forms of the prime version of the row ideally allowed listeners a new way of understanding and listening to music. Someone with an extremely advanced ear could theoretically sense the relationships between the notes and understand the musical organization of the piece.
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Kevin A. Ure

Creating Ambient Noise in Musical Works

Original music compositions regularly use ambient noise to add effects to a composition. Whether using acoustic effects or electronic effects, the “background” noise serves to develop the atmosphere for musical works. Effects add to a suspenseful scene in a movie, create a thicker musical density, and provide atmospheric effects to aid the storyline. Composers that study film music learn about the many ways in which these sounds can be created.

String Instruments

Since string players don’t have to breathe, they are capable of sustaining sounds for long periods of time. String instruments create imperceptible changes between bow strokes to create sustained drones, tessituras, dramatic tremolos, and trills. All of these techniques when used appropriately add to the suspense of the music. Performers also use pizzicatos, snap pizzicatos, or an extremely loud Bartok pizzicato to create the sound of snapping twigs or sudden outbursts of sound. Additionally, players are often asked to play “col legno” in which the performer uses the back of the bow to create a wooden, clacking sound.

Percussion Instruments

The wide variety of percussion instruments makes it very difficult to discuss this topic in its entirety. The potential for sound effects is virtually limitless. Composers may use a violin bow to play crotales to create an ethereal sound. Normally, crotales are struck with a mallet. However, with modern music bowed crotales have become more popular. Even audio samplers like EastWest Symphonic Orchestra, now include a bowed crotale option. Rainsticks create the illusion of rain while bass drums can be easily played to mimic the sound of thunder. Wind machines can be bowed to create the sound of whirling wind, while thunder sheets can be used to create thundering lightning effects.

Wind Instruments

Both brass and woodwind instruments are capable of creating key clicks by blowing air through the instrument and rapidly clicking the keys. Usually, the performer is asked to avoid creating specific pitches. The goal is to create just the sound of the clicking. Instruments may also be taken apart to create shrieking effects. Playing glissandi and quarter tones can also help add an additional element of pitch to a composition.

Electronic Media

Many new compositions include electronic media accompaniments that are intended to be played with live performers. With electronic music, you can create sounds that don’t occur naturally. Composers can stretch, skew, cut and splice segments of a recording to create new sounds. With the advances in computers, it is becoming more affordable to start your own production company. Low budget projects can acquire the resources to create outstanding effects.
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Kevin A. Ure

Music Composition: Serialism Techniques for Composers

Arnold Schoenberg at the Piano
Serialism inspired composers of the 20th century to the prospect of new and innovative music. The Second Viennese School was group of composers including: Arnold Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern. These composers helped to develop and codify twelve-tone music. Twelve-tone music uses all 12 pitches of the chromatic scale without repeating notes to create music without a tonal center, where no single note is more important than any other.

A tone row is created that helps to guide the composer in the selection of pitches. The composer chooses which 12 pitches he will use. The next step is to create a 12 X 12 grid of the pitches and place the first row of pitches in the top row. This makes it possible for the composer to keep the grid handy while composing and moving between consecutive pitches. Schoenberg stated that he composed twelve-tone music during walks and criticized systems of theory that were designed solely to help bad composers learn to compose quickly.

The Four Row Forms:

  • Prime: The row moves from left to right.
  • Retrograde: Prime is reversed; the row moves from right to left.
  • Inversion: The row moves from top to bottom in the grid.
  • Retrograde Inversion: The row moves from the bottom to the top of the grid.
Once you have established a grid, you must number the rows from 0 to 12, starting with C. For example: C = 0, C# = 1, D = 2, D# = 3, E = 4, etc.

The numbering system makes it possible to refer to each form of the row such as "Inversion 4" or "Retrograde 4". Diagonal movement across a grid is not permitted, since a diagonal move will repeat pitches. In traditional twelve-tone, only the order of the notes is restricted, other musical elements such as rhythm, dynamics, register, and articulations are not. However, Integral serialism permits the restriction of these elements as well.

Combinatoriality

Combinatoriality is the combination of two rows to create two sets. Any two sets of twelve-tone rows may be be split and combined, provided no pitches are repeated.
The following example show you two rows which combine to make a single set:
  • Row 1 Prime 4: E F G C# F# D# G# D B C A A#
  • Row 2 Inversion 11: B A# G# D A C G C# E D# F# F
  • Combined Set 1: E F G C# F# D# + B A# G# D A C (First six pitches of the Prime plus the last six pitches of the Inversion.)
  • Combined Set 2: A# A C B D G# + G C# E D# F# F (Reversing the order of pitches is permissible, but the order must stay the same.)

Integral Serialism

Integral serialism goes beyond twelve-tone to restrict other aspects of the composition. Specific rhythm, dynamics, register and articulations. or all elements to create a very formulaic composition. The elements in integral serialism are carefully controlled. These restrictions make it necessary for a composer to be extremely creative in his writing. The creativity lies in the initial creation of the system, once the system is created, the composer simple follows the rules that he has laid out for himself.

Other Serial Techniques

Composers have also created sets of differing numbers of notes. Most commonly, they will choose a number less than 12, thereby maintaining some semblance of a scale. Luciano Berio, in "Nones," uses a total of 13 pitches.
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